Neurosurgery (also known as neurological surgery) is a branch of medicine that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of ailments of the spine, brain, and nervous system. The surgical specialty of neurosurgery tackles diseases and abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord. Because of nerve root dysfunction, back pain can cause neurological symptoms such as numbness, muscle weakness, and loss of bowel and bladder control. These symptoms indicate that, rather than conservative therapies, neurosurgery is required to treat the underlying cause of back pain. Discectomy, laminectomy, and spinal fusion surgery are all neurosurgical procedures used to relieve back pain. There is a larger chance of additional nerve injury and infection in neurosurgery, which can lead to paralysis.