Molecular genetics is defined as “the application of recombinant DNA techniques to modify genetic information within and across plants, animals, and microorganisms.” Molecular genetics allows researchers to identify the genes responsible for a specific brain function. A human cell contains around 30,000–60,000 genes, according to the human genome project. Neurons are distinct from other cells in that they express a unique set of genes.
The study of nervous system cells and their arrangement into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior is known as neurobiology. It is a branch of biology as well as neuroscience. Neurobiology is distinct from neuroscience, which is a considerably wider field that encompasses any scientific investigation of the nervous system. The field investigates the functions of the nervous system, the brain, and related tissues such as the spinal cord.